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Change the {{draft}} marker to {{review}} when you need a reviewer for text and TypoScript. info

notice - This information is outdated

This page is related to the outdated TYPO3 version 6.2 and is no longer being updated. For information about Fluid for newer versions, see

Also see FluidSyntax.

Fluid / Extbase

Extbase is a backport of some features of Flow (the PHP framework on which TYPO3 Neos will be built) to TYPO3 CMS.
With Fluid, the new templating system, all the code for the view logic moves to the template.

current version:
TYPO3 6.2 Extbase/Fluid 6.2
earlier releases:
TYPO3 6.1 Extbase/Fluid 6.1
TYPO3 6.0 Extbase/Fluid 6.0
TYPO3 4.7 Extbase/Fluid 4.7
TYPO3 4.6 Extbase/Fluid 1.4
TYPO3 4.5 Extbase/Fluid 1.3
TYPO3 4.4 Extbase/Fluid 1.2
TYPO3 4.3 Extbase/Fluid 1.0

Collection of fluid / extbase hints

Accessing a view helper

Acessing a viewHelper from another viewHelper for instance:

$objectManager = \TYPO3\CMS\Core\Utility\GeneralUtility::makeInstance('TYPO3\\CMS\\Extbase\\Object\\ObjectManager');
$viewHelper = $objectManager->get($viewHelperName);
$result = $viewHelper->render($param1, $param2);

Including a Fluid plugin through ext_tables.php

  * Register an Extbase PlugIn into backend's list of plugins
 	'Addresses',					// The name of the extension in UpperCamelCase
 	'Pi1',						// A unique name of the plugin in UpperCamelCase
 	'Address Management'				// A title shown in the backend dropdown field

Configure a Fluid plugin through ext_localconf.php

  * Configure the Extbase Dispatcher
 	'Vendor.' . $_EXTKEY,					// The name of the extension in UpperCamelCase
 	'Pi1',						// A unique name of the plugin in UpperCamelCase
 		'Address' => 'index,show',		// The first controller and its first action will be the default 
 		'Address' => 'index,show',		// An array of non-cachable controller-action-combinations (they must already be enabled)

Accessing TS configuration in the controller

The TS configuration can be accessed through


Adding AdditionalHeaderdata (for example Stylesheets)



Better is the method (not for uncached actions) to include js or css.



$this->response->addAdditionalHeaderData('<link rel="stylesheet" href="' . \TYPO3\CMS\Core\Utility\ExtensionManagementUtility::siteRelPath('extkey') . 'Resources/Public/Stylesheets/index.css" />');

Accessing the current request (f.e. for retrieving $_GET vars)

You can access the current request with

$currentRequest = $this->variableContainer->get('view')->getRequest();

If you want to access f.e. a $_GET param use

$this->variableContainer->get('view')->getRequest()->getArgument('name of the GET var');

or to access all arguments:


You can also check if an argument exists with

$this->variableContainer->get('view')->getRequest()->hasArgument('name of the GET var');

Standard View Helpers


Used to declare one or more variables that will only be valid within the f:alias tag.


<f:alias map="{x:, y:}">
   {} or {y}


Outputs the base-tag in HTML


<f:base />


<base href=""></base>


you can get output from typoscript based on current data


<f:cObject typoscriptObjectPath="lib.calc" data="45 + 34 * 2" />

in conjunction with:

lib.calc = TEXT
lib.calc {
  current = 1
  prioriCalc = 1



(as TYPO3 prioriCalc ignores precedence of * and calculates (45 + 34) * 2 )


<f:cObject typoscriptObjectPath="lib.replace_umlauts">Übergröße</f:cObject>

in conjunction with:

lib.replace_umlauts = TEXT
lib.replace_umlauts {
  current = 1
  stdWrap.replacement {
    1 {
      search = ä
      replace = ae
    2 {
      search = ö
      replace = oe
    3 {
      search = ü
      replace = ue
    4 {
      search = ß
      replace = ss
    5 {
      search = Ä
      replace = Ae
    6 {
      search = ö
      replace = Oe
    7 {
      search = ü
      replace = ue




Write a comment that does not get outputted in the final HTML.


This partial expects the following parameters:
- "datum": Single data object with a "value" property
- "key": Name of datum


Counts the number of elements in an array


<f:count subject="{myarray}" />

Output: 5

Example for usage in condtions:

<f:if condition="{myarray -> f:count()} > 3">

// do something



If used inside a for-loop will rotate the values given.


<f:for each="{0:1, 1:2, 2:3, 3:4}" as="foo">
  <f:cycle values="{0: '..', 1: '--', 2: 'xx'}" as="cycle">

Output: ..--xx..

Usage: Use to create Zebra-Styles, Rotating Templates, ...


Debugs the content inside the tag, Outputs the title in front


<f:debug title="Debug of MyArray">{myarray}</f:debug>
<f:debug title="All available variables">{_all}</f:debug>

To modify the depth of an object's properties, use the maxDepth attribute. It defaults to 8:

<f:debug maxDepth="3">{data}</f:debug>

By default, the dump is positioned above all elements on the page, and on the top left. To show it at the place f:debug is called at, activate "inline":

<f:debug inline="true">{data}</f:debug>

warning - Message

<f:debug> does not output properties of plain stdClass objects in TYPO3 < 6.2.5


Traverses an Array wholy


    <f:for each="{shoppinglist}" as="food" key="number" iteration="itemIteration">
      <li class="item{f:if(condition: itemIteration.isFirst, then: 'first-child')}">{number}: {food}</li>


  <li class="item first-child">4: apples</li>
  <li class="item">3: choclate</li>
  <li class="item">25: beer</li>
  <li class="item">10: frozen pizza</li>

Available iterator values:
itemIteration.index (0 based index of the iteration)
itemIteration.cycle (the same as index, but starting from 1) (total number of items)
itemIteration.isFirst (TRUE for the first item in the iteration)
itemIteration.isLast (TRUE for the last item in the iteration)
itemIteration.isOdd (TRUE for odd cycles 1,3,5,...)
itemIteration.isEven (TRUE for even cycles 2,4,6,...)


Outputs a HTML form. The data is submitted via POST request (you can change that by setting method="get").

Inside the form you can use form fields (see below).

<f:form action="...">...</f:form>
<f:form action="..." controller="..." package="..." enctype="multipart/form-data"> ... </f:form>

A form to change the properties of a domain object. This binds the values to the form fields.

<f:form action="..." name="customer" object="{customer}">
  <f:form.hidden property="id" />
  <f:form.textfield property="name" />

form fields


<f:form.checkbox name="myCheckBox" value="someValue" />
Output: <input type="checkbox" name="myCheckBox" value="someValue" />

You can also perfom simple boolean operations.

<f:form.checkbox name="myCheckBox" value="someValue" checked="{object.value} == 5" />
Output: <input type="checkbox" name="myCheckBox" value="someValue" checked="checked" /> (depending on {object})

Bind to an object property

<f:form.checkbox property="interests" value="TYPO3" />
Output: <input type="checkbox" name="user[interests][]" value="TYPO3" checked="checked" /> (depending on property "interests")


Iterates through errors of the request

DEPRECATED: This ViewHelper is not available anymore in TYPO3 6.2.

<ul class="errors">
    <li>{error.code}: {error.message}</li>

  <li>1234567890: Validation errors for argument "newBlog"</li>


Renders an <input type="hidden" ...> tag.

<f:form.hidden name="myHiddenValue" value="42" />

<input type="hidden" name="myHiddenValue" value="42" />


Creates a textbox for password input.

<f:form.password name="myPassword" />

<input type="password" name="myPassword" value="default value" />

Creates a radio button

< name="myRadioButton" value="someValue" />

Output: <input type="radio" name="myRadioButton" value="someValue" />
< name="myRadioButton" value="someValue" checked="{object.value} == 5" />

Output: <input type="radio" name="myRadioButton" value="someValue" checked="checked" /> (depending on {object})
< property="newsletter" value="1" /> yes
< property="newsletter" value="0" /> no

<input type="radio" name="user[newsletter]" value="1" checked="checked" /> yes
<input type="radio" name="user[newsletter]" value="0" /> no
(depending on property "newsletter")

Renders a <select> dropdown list. The simplest way is to supply an associative array, where the key is used as option key and the value as human-readable name.

< name="paymentOptions" options="{payPal: 'PayPal', visa: 'Visa Card'}" />

To preselect a value simply specify the attribute value="...". In this example: value="visa". If it is a multi-select box (multiple="true"), then value can be an array, too.

Binding to domain objects

< name="users" options="{userArray}" optionValueField="id" optionLabelField="firstName" />

In this example userArray is an array of "User" domain objects with no array key. $user->getId() and $user->getFirstName() is used to retrieve the key and the display name. The value attribute in this case would expect a "User" domain object.


<f:form.submit name="mySubmit" value="Send Mail" />

Output: <input type="submit" name="mySubmit" value="Send Mail" />


<f:form.textarea cols="20" rows="5" name="myTextArea" value="This is shown inside the textarea" />

Output: <textarea cols="20" rows="5" name="myTextArea">This is shown inside the textarea</textarea>


DEPRECATED: use f:form.textfield instead!


<f:form.textfield name="myTextBox" value="some value" />

Output: <input type="text" name="myTextBox" value="some value" />


Generates an <input type="file"> element. Make sure to set enctype="multipart/form-data" on the form!

<f:form.upload name="file" />

Output: <input type="file" name="file" />




<f:format.crop maxCharacters="17" append="&nbsp;[...]">This is some very long text</f:format.crop>


Formats a number to resemble a currency.

<f:format.currency currencySign="€" decimalSeparator="," thousandsSeparator=".">1234.56</f:format.currency>

Output: 1.234,56 €

< format="d.m.Y - H:i:s">+1 week 2 days 4 hours 2 seconds</>

Usage with unix timestamps:

< format="d.m.Y - H:i:s">@{your_timestamp}</>

See also: PHP Manual date

Be aware: as the php function date() is not capable of localisation you have no chance to get local named times (weekday, month)

Since Feb 2013 the functionality of this viewhelper is extended: you can use strftime-format-strings (recognized by the usage of '%' in the format-string) and use localisation for weekdays and month.

See also: PHP Manual strftime


Renders Code through lib.parseFunc_RTE or a custom parsing function. To be used with RTE input.


Decode special HTML characters that Fluid encodes by default (&, <, >, ")

<script type="text/javascript">
    var json = <f:format.htmlentitiesDecode>{jsonVarFromControllerAction}</f:format.htmlentitiesDecode>;


Outputs an argument/value without any escaping.


Outputs: Content of {string} without any escaping.

<f:format.raw value="{string}" />
{string -> f:format.raw()}


Makes <br /> tags out of new lines.

<f:format.nl2br>Some text with
newlines in it.</f:format.nl2br>


Some text with
newlines in it.


Formats numbers country-specific

<f:format.number decimals="1" decimalSeparator="," thousandsSeparator=".">2345.678</f:format.number>

Output: 2.345,6


Adds whitespace or a user-defined string to a string (using the PHP str_pad function).

<f:format.padding padLength="10" padString="_">text</f:format.padding>

Output: text______

See also: PHP Manual str_pad


Formats a string with the PHP printf function.

<f:format.printf arguments="{0: 34567890, 1: 'some text'}">We can display %2$s and format numbers like this: %1$.3e</f:format.printf>
<f:format.printf arguments="{number: 12345}">%d</f:format.printf>


We can display some text and format numbers like this: 3.456e+7

See also: PHP Manual printf


Sorts a multidimensional array in another dimension.

   <f:groupedFor each="{0: {name: 'apple', color: 'green'}, 1: {name: 'cherry', color: 'red'}, 2: {name: 'banana', color: 'yellow'}, 3: {name: 'strawberry', color: 'red'}}" as="fruitsOfThisColor" groupBy="color" groupKey="color">
       {color} fruits:
         <f:for each="{fruitsOfThisColor}" as="fruit" key="label">
           <li>{label}: {}</li>

f:if, f:then, f:else

Conditional Output

See for more examples. BooleanParserTest.php lists allowed constructs.


<f:if condition="{myvar}">
  Displayed if myvar is neither an empty string nor "0".

<f:if condition="{myvar}">
    Displayed if myvar is neither an empty string nor "0".
    Displayed if myvar IS an empty string or "0".


<section class="{f:if(condition:, then: 'visible-record', else: 'hide')}">


Since TYPO3 6.1 a string comparison can easily be done:

<f:if condition="{myvar} == 'foobar'">
  Displayed if myvar is equal to the string value "foobar"

Inline notation:

{f:if(condition:'{variable}==\'foo\'', then:'Hello')}
{f:if(condition:'{variable}=="foo"', then:'Hello')}


It is possible, to do some comparance of integer values.

 <f:if condition="{rank} > 100">
   Will be shown if rank is > 100
 <f:if condition="{rank} % 2">
   Will be shown if rank % 2 != 0.
 <f:if condition="{rank} == {k:bar()}">
   Checks if rank is equal to the result of the ViewHelper "k:bar"

Inline notation:

{f:if(condition:'{number}==1', then:'Hello')}


Simply use integer comparison:

 <f:if condition="{enable} == 1">
   Feature enabled!
 <f:if condition="{enable} == 0">
   Feature disabled!


{f:if(condition: enable, then: 'Feature enabled!')}
{f:if(condition: '{enable}==0', then: 'Feature disabled!')}

Comparing view helper output

It is possible to use the result of another viewhelper as condition for the if-statement. The double quotes of the inner view helper have to be changed to single quotes then.

<f:if condition="<f:count subject='{post.comments}' /> > 0">
    [...] Display comments here[...]
    No Comments found.

Logical operators

Concatenating multiple comparisons with AND, OR or NOT is not possible in f:if. You can use v:if from VHS for that - see the examples.

If you only need AND, you can stack all values into an object that will be compared:

<f:if condition="{0:myvar, 1:secondvar} == {0:'test', 1:'bar'}">
  Displayed if myvar is "test" AND secondvar is "bar".


Renders the Image specified by the src-attribute. The image can be resized by adding width and/or height attributes (resizing happens on the fly using an instance of tslib_cObj internally). You can also specify 'c' or 'm' to the width and height attributes.

<f:image src="uploads/pics/myImage.png" width="200" height="150" alt="My Image" />
<f:image src="{f:uri.resource(path:'Images/myImage.png')}" width="200" height="150" alt="My Image" />

See also TYPO3 TypoScript Reference: Functions


Selects a layout


<f:layout name="Main" />



Creates a link to an extbase action.


<f:link.action action="myAction"> Do It! </f:link.action>

Example with arguments:

<f:link.action action="myAction" controller="MyController" arguments="{argument: argument}">Do It!</f:link.action>

Email link with spamProtectEmailAddresses-settings.


< email="" />


Creates an external link.


<f:link.external uri="" target="_blank">external link</f:link.external>

Creates a Typolink.


  <>Current Page</>

  < pageUid="23">Contact</>

  < pageUid="13" additionalParams="{tt_news|news: 13}">Read whole news</> (does not work with Fluid 1.3)
  < pageUid="13" additionalParams="{tt_news: '{news: 13}'}">Read whole news</> (works with Fluid 1.3)

  < addQueryString="1" section="top">To Top</>

  < pageUid="23" pageType="123">Generate PDF</>


(only from TYPO3/Fluid 7.0) Creates a Typolink. Useful with link wizard values: 19 _blank - "testtitle with whitespace" &X=y


  <f:link.typolink parameter="{link}">Linktext</f:link.typolink>

  <f:link.typolink parameter="{link}" target="_blank" class="ico-class" title="some title" additionalParams="&u=b" additionalAttributes="{type:'button'}">


If you need just the link itself from a link ViewHelper and not the full link tag, the ViewHelpers <f:uri.action>, <>, <f:uri.external>, <f:uri.image>, <> should be used. The arguments are the same as for the ones of <f:link.


<f:uri.action action="myAction" controller="MyController" arguments="{argument: argument}" />
< email="" />
< pageUid="23" />

Rendering links from the link wizard

If you are using the link wizard as described here you have to use your own View Helper. Example see here.


Renders Flash-Messages. Deprecated. Use <f:flashMessages> instead!


<f:renderFlashMessages />


Renders Flash-Messages. Optional Parameter is "renderMode"


<f:flashMessages renderMode="div" />


Renders the content of a section or a partial.

<f:render partial="itemForm" arguments="{item: item}" />

<f:render section="sectionname" />

See also: f:section


By default, variables in current scope are not passed to the template that shall be rendered.

You can provide a list of variables to pass on:

<f:render partial="itemForm" arguments="{item: item, count: itemCount}" />

or simply pass all parameters to the template:

<f:render partial="itemForm" arguments="{_all}" />


With a section you can define a section within a template.


<f:layout name="layoutname" />
<f:section name="content">
  //Define Section here

This section will be called from a layout with

<f:render section="sectionname" />


Simple view helper that allows you to render content depending on a given value or expression. It bahaves similar to a basic switch statement in PHP.


<f:switch expression="{person.gender}">
  <f:case value="male">Mr.</f:case>
  <f:case value="female">Mrs.</f:case>
  <f:case default="1">unknown gender</f:case>

Output: Mr. / Mrs. (depending on the value of {person.gender})

warning - Message

Up to TYPO3 7.0, f:switch prevents the template/partial from being cached and degrades performance - see bug #64449.


Translate a given key or use the tag body as default.


<f:translate key="label_recent_posts">Below are the most recent posts:</f:translate>

The viewhelper supports additional arguments via the "arguments"-attribute. These arguments are inserted into the translated text with sprintf.


<f:translate key="author" arguments="{0: authorName}">Written by %s.</f:translate>

If the authorName is "Heinz", this becomes (in default translation): "Written by Heinz".

The translate viewhelper has an optional attribute "extensionName" which tells the viewhelper from which extension the language files will be used, normally from EXT:extension_name/Resources/Private/Language/locallang.xlf. This can be useful when using language files from another extension, or when using the fluid standalone view.


<f:translate key="label_recent_posts" extensionName="blog_example">Below are the most recent posts:</f:translate>


Sometimes, you need some HTML attributes which are not part of the standard. As an example: If you use the Dojo JavaScript framework, using these non-standard attributes makes life a lot easier.

We think that the templating framework should not constrain the user in his possibilities -- thus, it should be possible to add custom HTML attributes as well, if they are needed. Our solution looks as follows:

Every view helper which inherits from AbstractTagBasedViewHelper has a special argument called additionalAttributes which allows you to add arbitrary HTML attributes to the tag.

If the link tag from above needed a new attribute called fadeDuration, which is not part of HTML, you could do that as follows:

 <f:link.action ... additionalAttributes="{fadeDuration : 800}">
 Link with fadeDuration set

This attribute is available in all tags that inherit from TYPO3\Fluid\Core\ViewHelper\AbstractTagBasedViewHelper.

Things that do not work

Mathematical expessions

Fluid does not have a native way to e.g. make sums or products of numbers and variables. You have to use external view helpers like <vhs:math.sum>.

Other resources